From Bill McCune, Arizona's Premier Historical Documentary Producer

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ARIZONA

The Road to Statehood

Program Time: 72 minutes in two parts
Host : Bill McCune

 

13,000 BC

Cochise Man

300BC - 900 AD

Hohokam

1680

Establishment of Santa Fe, 12 years before Plymouth Rock

1750ís

Establish Tubac (Arizona)

1775

Establish Tucson (Arizona)

1776

Friar Garces and Captain DeAnza establish road to California

1781

Friar Garces killed in Yuma Indian uprising

1821

Republic of Mexico established

1820ís

Mountain Men in Southwest (Bill Williams, Kit Carson, Ewing Young and Joe Walker)

1830ís

Mexican government puts $100 bounty on Apache scalps

1836

Republic of Texas established

1848

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ($18 million buys California, Nevada, Utah, and parts of Arizona and New Mexico north of the Gila River.

1849

Gold Rush - 60,000 49ers pass through Yuma

1850ís

U.S. Military - Hardships at frontier posts (high desertion rates, except among Black 'Buffalo Soldiers.'

1850

Yuma - Dr. Able Lincoln, the John Glanton Gang, and the 'Yuma' Indians

 

have 'Ferry Boat War.'

1853

Gadsen Purchase ($10 million buys southern Arizona and New Mexico.)

1856

"Hi-Jolly" the camel driver (Army experiments with camels in the desert.)

1857

'Pony Express' and 'Jackass Mail' - 180 miles on a mule.

1858

John Butterfield Overland Mail and Stage Line (150 depots from Tipton, Missouri to San Francisco, California.)

1852 - 1908

Steamboats on the Colorado River.

1861

The Bascom Affair (Hostage situation with Cochise and Army leads to Apache hostilities.)

1861

First ever Congressional Medal of Honor awarded to Dr. Bernard Irwin for actions in Apache wars, related to Battle at Apache Pass.

1860ís

Civil War - U.S. troops leave Arizona; Apache raids increase; Confederates take Tucson and establish Confederate Territory of Arizona.

1863

Battle of Pichaco Peak

1863

Union troops retake Tucson; General James Carlton extra-legally proclaims Arizona a U.S. Territory. Congress makes it official on February 24, 1863.

1863

First Territorial Capitol at Ft. Whipple; moved to Granite Creek and renamed Prescott.

1865

'Scorched Earth' policy against Navajos led by Kit Carson. Navajo 'Long Walk' - tribe marched to Bosca Redondo, New Mexico 'prison.'

1871

Camp Grant Massacre - Tucson citizens murder 132 Apache women, children and elderly. Jury acquits vigilantes in 19 minutes.

1870ís

General George Crook commands military; established 'Apache Scouts;' guerilla tactics. Battles of Salt Rive Caves, Turret Butte. Hostilities end.

1874

All previously hostiles tribes forced together at San Carlos reservation; General Crook objects and requests transfer. New hostilities for several

 

years. Geronimo becomes the focus of attention.

1880

'Indian Ring Scandal' - corrupt agents cheat Indians on reservations.

1886

Crook resigns in dispute with Washington over use of 'Apache Scouts.' Replaced by politically ambitious General Nelson Miles.

1886

Final surrender of Geronimo. All Chiricahua Apaches (including friendlies and former Army scouts) exiled to Florida, then Oklahoma, for 27 years. Years

 

later, Geronimo appears in 'Wild West' shows.

Late 1880ís

----Judicial system operating

 

----C. Meyer Zulich appointed as Territorial Governor while prisoner. in Mexican jail. Mercenary hired to 'break him out.' He escapes North to be sworn in.

 

----'Thieving 13th Legislature'(1889)breaks records for 'corruption.'

 

----Con men and 'Snake Oil' salesmen active.

 

----'The Baron of Arizona' (James Addison Reevis) claims ownership of 18,000 square miles of Territory, based on phony Spanish land grant. Later goes to jail.

 

----Prospector Ed Schefflin strikes silver and gold. Established town of Tombstone.

 

----Henry Wickenburg sells his Vulture Mine for $85,000. It later produces millions. He does in poverty; suicide.

1877

First railroad enters Arizona at Yuma.

1880

Railroad to Tucson. Phony telegram from Pope in Rome reads:

 

"Congratulations. Where in Hell is Tucson?"

1880ís

----Promoter Frank Murphy builds 'impossible railroad' through the Bradshaw Mountains.

 

----Pleasant Valley War (Grahams vs. Tewksburrys,) lasts 25 years.

 

----Frontier sheriff well established; broad powers.

 

----Sheriff Commodore Perry Owens shoot-out in Holbrook; more daring than OK Corral, but not as famous.

1901

Arizona Rangers ('26 Men') established by Territorial Legislature.

 

Largely cleans up criminal element. Later voted out of existence amid partisan political bickering.

1905

Congress loans $11 million to build Theodore Roosevelt Dam. Stable water supply and electricity for Phoenix area. The former President attends dedication; other dams follow.

 

supply and electricity for Phoenix area. The former President attends

1908 - 1917

----Automobiles appear. 'Cactus Derby' race from Los Angeles to Phoenix

 

attracts Barney Oldfield and Louis Chevrolet.

 

----Political struggle for statehood successful. Signed by President William Howard Taft, February 14, 1912.

 

----George W.P. Hunt elected first Governor: Served seven 2-year terms, but not all consecutively.

 

----George Hunt and Tom Campbell both claimed victory in election in 1916; both 'take office.' Courts later decide winner.

 

----Women pioneers profiled:

 

   Nellie Bush - Pilot/lawyer

 

   Rachel Berry - First female State Representative in US

 

   Francis Munds - Second female State Senator in US; Suffragette

 

   Isabella Greenway - First Arizona Congresswoman

 

   Jane Rider - Engineer

 

   Sally Davis Hayden Education pioneer

 

----Early motion picture industry in Arizona; Tom Mix profiled

1917

Bisbee Deportation - During WWI, striking copper miners rounded up by company police and shipped, at gunpoint, in railroad cars to Columbus, New Mexico.

FINALLY:

FOR FUN - Irish-American barnstorming pilot Paddy Murphy hired by Mexican revolutionaries. A bit drunk, Murphy mistakenly bombs Naco, Arizona instead of Naco, Sonora, Mexico.

Featured participants include:
Historians Marshall Trimble,
Lester 'Budge' Ruffner,
and Don Dedera;
the musical ballads of Dolan Ellis;
and comments from Barry Goldwater and Morris Udall.


The History and Heritage of Arizona
The Road to Statehood | The Spirit of Arizona | geoARIZONA | Una Segunda Vista | Almost Free | The Women They Were | INDIAN | The Road to Nazlini | Barry Goldwater | Barry and Mo | Arizona Highways