From Bill McCune, Arizona's Premier Historical Documentary Producer

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The Road to Statehood

Program Time: 72 minutes in two parts
Host : Bill McCune


13,000 BC

Cochise Man

300BC - 900 AD



Establishment of Santa Fe, 12 years before Plymouth Rock


Establish Tubac (Arizona)


Establish Tucson (Arizona)


Friar Garces and Captain DeAnza establish road to California


Friar Garces killed in Yuma Indian uprising


Republic of Mexico established


Mountain Men in Southwest (Bill Williams, Kit Carson, Ewing Young and Joe Walker)


Mexican government puts $100 bounty on Apache scalps


Republic of Texas established


Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ($18 million buys California, Nevada, Utah, and parts of Arizona and New Mexico north of the Gila River.


Gold Rush - 60,000 49ers pass through Yuma


U.S. Military - Hardships at frontier posts (high desertion rates, except among Black 'Buffalo Soldiers.'


Yuma - Dr. Able Lincoln, the John Glanton Gang, and the 'Yuma' Indians


have 'Ferry Boat War.'


Gadsen Purchase ($10 million buys southern Arizona and New Mexico.)


"Hi-Jolly" the camel driver (Army experiments with camels in the desert.)


'Pony Express' and 'Jackass Mail' - 180 miles on a mule.


John Butterfield Overland Mail and Stage Line (150 depots from Tipton, Missouri to San Francisco, California.)

1852 - 1908

Steamboats on the Colorado River.


The Bascom Affair (Hostage situation with Cochise and Army leads to Apache hostilities.)


First ever Congressional Medal of Honor awarded to Dr. Bernard Irwin for actions in Apache wars, related to Battle at Apache Pass.


Civil War - U.S. troops leave Arizona; Apache raids increase; Confederates take Tucson and establish Confederate Territory of Arizona.


Battle of Pichaco Peak


Union troops retake Tucson; General James Carlton extra-legally proclaims Arizona a U.S. Territory. Congress makes it official on February 24, 1863.


First Territorial Capitol at Ft. Whipple; moved to Granite Creek and renamed Prescott.


'Scorched Earth' policy against Navajos led by Kit Carson. Navajo 'Long Walk' - tribe marched to Bosca Redondo, New Mexico 'prison.'


Camp Grant Massacre - Tucson citizens murder 132 Apache women, children and elderly. Jury acquits vigilantes in 19 minutes.


General George Crook commands military; established 'Apache Scouts;' guerilla tactics. Battles of Salt Rive Caves, Turret Butte. Hostilities end.


All previously hostiles tribes forced together at San Carlos reservation; General Crook objects and requests transfer. New hostilities for several


years. Geronimo becomes the focus of attention.


'Indian Ring Scandal' - corrupt agents cheat Indians on reservations.


Crook resigns in dispute with Washington over use of 'Apache Scouts.' Replaced by politically ambitious General Nelson Miles.


Final surrender of Geronimo. All Chiricahua Apaches (including friendlies and former Army scouts) exiled to Florida, then Oklahoma, for 27 years. Years


later, Geronimo appears in 'Wild West' shows.

Late 1880ís

----Judicial system operating


----C. Meyer Zulich appointed as Territorial Governor while prisoner. in Mexican jail. Mercenary hired to 'break him out.' He escapes North to be sworn in.


----'Thieving 13th Legislature'(1889)breaks records for 'corruption.'


----Con men and 'Snake Oil' salesmen active.


----'The Baron of Arizona' (James Addison Reevis) claims ownership of 18,000 square miles of Territory, based on phony Spanish land grant. Later goes to jail.


----Prospector Ed Schefflin strikes silver and gold. Established town of Tombstone.


----Henry Wickenburg sells his Vulture Mine for $85,000. It later produces millions. He does in poverty; suicide.


First railroad enters Arizona at Yuma.


Railroad to Tucson. Phony telegram from Pope in Rome reads:


"Congratulations. Where in Hell is Tucson?"


----Promoter Frank Murphy builds 'impossible railroad' through the Bradshaw Mountains.


----Pleasant Valley War (Grahams vs. Tewksburrys,) lasts 25 years.


----Frontier sheriff well established; broad powers.


----Sheriff Commodore Perry Owens shoot-out in Holbrook; more daring than OK Corral, but not as famous.


Arizona Rangers ('26 Men') established by Territorial Legislature.


Largely cleans up criminal element. Later voted out of existence amid partisan political bickering.


Congress loans $11 million to build Theodore Roosevelt Dam. Stable water supply and electricity for Phoenix area. The former President attends dedication; other dams follow.


supply and electricity for Phoenix area. The former President attends

1908 - 1917

----Automobiles appear. 'Cactus Derby' race from Los Angeles to Phoenix


attracts Barney Oldfield and Louis Chevrolet.


----Political struggle for statehood successful. Signed by President William Howard Taft, February 14, 1912.


----George W.P. Hunt elected first Governor: Served seven 2-year terms, but not all consecutively.


----George Hunt and Tom Campbell both claimed victory in election in 1916; both 'take office.' Courts later decide winner.


----Women pioneers profiled:


   Nellie Bush - Pilot/lawyer


   Rachel Berry - First female State Representative in US


   Francis Munds - Second female State Senator in US; Suffragette


   Isabella Greenway - First Arizona Congresswoman


   Jane Rider - Engineer


   Sally Davis Hayden Education pioneer


----Early motion picture industry in Arizona; Tom Mix profiled


Bisbee Deportation - During WWI, striking copper miners rounded up by company police and shipped, at gunpoint, in railroad cars to Columbus, New Mexico.


FOR FUN - Irish-American barnstorming pilot Paddy Murphy hired by Mexican revolutionaries. A bit drunk, Murphy mistakenly bombs Naco, Arizona instead of Naco, Sonora, Mexico.

Featured participants include:
Historians Marshall Trimble,
Lester 'Budge' Ruffner,
and Don Dedera;
the musical ballads of Dolan Ellis;
and comments from Barry Goldwater and Morris Udall.

The History and Heritage of Arizona
The Road to Statehood | The Spirit of Arizona | geoARIZONA | Una Segunda Vista | Almost Free | The Women They Were | INDIAN | The Road to Nazlini | Barry Goldwater | Barry and Mo | Arizona Highways